Sindh Archives

Archival Sources relating to Balochistan at Sindh Archives, Karachi

As mentioned in the introduction to the records of the Agent to the Governor General in Baluchistan, British relations with the Khanate of Kalat and Afghanistan were managed through the Commissioner in Sindh before the establishment of the Baluchistan Agency in 1877. During this period (1839-1876), Sindh was a Commissioner's Province and it formed part of the Bombay Presidency in colonial India. As a result, these documents became part of the Commissioner Sindh's record and Sindh Archives is the official custodian. The most significant official in this connection was the Political Agent or the Political Superintendent on the Upper Sindh Frontier, a post first held by John Jacob of Jacobabad. In the 1839, Lt. John Jacob established his headquarters at the small town of Khan Garh which was later renamed after him as Jacobabad. British relations with the Khanate of Kalat were governed by the Treaty of 1854 by which the Khan of Kalat undertook to maintain friendly relations with British East India Company's government and not to engage in any external conflict without prior advice of Imperial Government. In return, the Imperial Government gave assurances of defending the Khanate of Kalat against any external aggression and committed to provide an annual subsidy of Rs. 50,000 to the Khan. This sum was later revised to Rs. 100,000. This arrangement was further solidified by the appointment of a Political Agent at Kalat in 1858 to keep the channels of communication between the Khan and the Commissioner in Sindh open. Below is a map of Balochistan and its neighboring principalities that provides an idea of the administrative arrangements and political relations between 1839 and 18, The details of these records, taken from the description provided by Sindh Archives, are given below. Individual records can be searched using the online catalog provided at the Sind Archives website at
Sindh Archives.

Map of Afghanistan, Balochistan, and Punjab ca. 1851 © Tallis & Company, London

Affairs at LussBeyla 1839-40

  1. Existence of copper & antimony near Shah Bellawul in the territory of LussBeyla
  2. Transfer of Sonmeanee by H. H. Shah Nawaz Khan to British Government since the merchants heavily taxed on the road by the BeloochSirdars; and
  3. Letters to Jam of Beyla.

Miscellaneous Kelat Military Operations 1839-42

  1. Proposals on the subsidizing of the Khan of Kelat doing the continuance of certain military operations and other matters connected with the progress of Sir John Keanes army in 1839
  2. Mr. Ross Bells age calling for information on various points connected with the organization of establishment etc at Dadur
  3. Sanction to the expenditure of Rs.5550/- on account of damage done to the crops by the passage of the army through the district of Shawl
  4. Mr. Ross Bells letter to Sir A. Burnes pointing out the precarious state of the country on account of disturbances on the frontier in Sind and lamenting why Mehrab Khans territory was not occupied by the British troops
  5. Appointment of Lieutenant Besant in place of Major Griffiths in charge of political affairs at Dadur
  6. Feelings of Sayyed and other prominent people of Shawl and Mastung in consequence of the unsettled state of British relations with Kelat and resource to conciliatory measures;
  7. Measures for the punishment of Mehrab Khan (Khan of Kelat) for the contumacy cruelty and perfidy displayed by him doing the campaign of 1839
  8. Information about re-enforcement required for keeping communication open with Afghanistan and for chastising Balochesetc
  9. Shah Nawaz Khans efforts to regain the throne at Kelat
  10. Mehrab Khans understanding to abdicate on the condition of being allowed to remain at Kelat and have portion of territory assigned for his expenses
  11. Kelat affairs, deposition of Mehrab Khan and placing Shah Nawaz Khan on the throne operations against Kelat
  12. Kelat affairs, An account of Jutgals and their possessions, transfer of the provinces of Cutchee, Shawl and Mastung to the government at Kabul Gandawa
  13. A detailed account of improvements etc. effected by Shah Nawaz Khan after his assumption of authority on 24th November 1839
  14. Arrangements for the policing of northern Cutchee
  15. Affairs at Kelat, Shah Nawaz Khans surrender and his abdication
  16. Mahomed Hasan allies Naseer Khan son of Mehrab Khan taking possession of the throne
  17. Incidents connected with the recapture of Kelat
  18. Sir W. H. Macnaghtans letter of May 1841 discussing the tenure of lands held by Brohees& the system of administering the courts of Shawl and Mastung
  19. Instructions to Mr. Ross Bell on the policy to be followed by him in consequence Naseer Khans flight to Mekran and government disapproval of his sending for Shah Nawaz Khan to Quetta
  20. Brohees instruction attributed to the resumption of their lands etc
  21. Arrangements for the settlement of Kelat affairs, Major Butran succeeding Mr. Ross Bell in Upper Sind. Naseer Khans arrival at Mastung
  22. Kabul government mandate conferring the countries of Cutchee and Mastung on Naseer Khan
  23. Dispute between Mir Naseer Khan and Mir Shah Nawaz Khan arising from Gul Mahomeds petition for the restoration of his family living with Mir Shah Nawaz Khan at Shikarpoor; and
  24. Relations between the British government and the Khan of Kelat etc.

Political Appointments and Affairs 1839-44

  1. Messrs Bell and Young appointed resident and assistant resident respectively in Upper Sind and other political officers
  2. Major General Sir Charles Napier appointed to the command of troops in Sind and Beluchistan
  3. Abolition of agency Sind and Beluchsitan from November 01, 1842
  4. Captain Mallet resident at Khairpoor; (6) Lieutenant Gordon appointed agent at Sonmeanee
  5. Dr. Gillander appointed to the medical charge of the post of Quetta and Boolan
  6. Suggests that captain W. Pottinger be attached to reserve force
  7. Captain J. Outram political agent lower Sind and instruction from Colonel Pottinger on the affairs of Sind
  8. Major J. Outram appointed political agent, Sind and Beluchistan and instruction to Lieutenant Leccie assistant political agent Hydrabad
  9. Reverend C. Lang appointed Captain of Hydrabad also the question of salary
  10. Salary of H. E. Governor of Sind fixed rupees 8000 per month
  11. Appointment of Mr. Maclerd in survey department and the question of salary
  12. Salary of the secretary to government of Sind
  13. Mr. Macleod appointed collector of customs Kurrachee
  14. Lieutenant McPherson appointed on special duty
  15. Lieutenant Brown appointed assistant political agent
  16. Captain Pontardent assistant political agent
  17. Lieutenant Brown and Postan claim for acting allowance from the salary of the political agent, Upper Sind
  18. Temporary allowance to Captain Kennedy during his employment at the court of Meer Rustam Khan of Khairpur
  19. Lieutenant Colonel Stacy appointed on special duty at Khelat
  20. Lieutenant Pelly appointed third class assistant
  21. Allowance to captain Hart for the duty of interpreter; and
  22. Kelat affairs from January to September 1840.

Advances to Khan of Kelat on Emergencies 1839-52

  1. H.H the Khan of Kelat's application for aid in repressing the depredations of the Murree Chiefs
  2. Determination of the question of boundaries pertaining to certain areas known by the name of Bagh between the Kelat state and the British territory
  3. An account of certain tribal disturbances on the border and in Baluchistan
  4. Khan of Kelat's request for pecuniary assistance from the British in view of the QanharSardar's preparations to attack Kelat to avenge the defeat of a detachment of their troops which had invaded the territory at Barege, the Khan attribute the hostility of the Afghan to his ship with the British
  5. Proposals to assist H.H the Khan by a payment of rupees 50,000 on certain conditions. Major Jacob's view as to the permanent mode of fixing the Kelat boundary so as to prevent future disputes
  6. An account of political relations with Kelat during 1850; and
  7. Periodical statements showing
    1. Europeans and East Indians employed in a civil military or medical capacity in the service of the Khairpur native state, and
    2. ii. Lapses of Jagir grants to the British government.

Hill Tribes 1847

Hill tribes, The Mundrancees, defeat by Lieutenant Young Husband, grant of the title of Khan Bahadur to Allif Khan, native adjutant of the Shikarpur police of 1848.

Frontier Posts 1847

Frontier posts, wells, three Puckah, authorized to be sunk at Khanghur&Khyree-Ke-Gurhee& two more and DilMorad& Hussein-Ke-Ghurree.

Major Jacob Releases the Prisoners 1848

  1. Major Jacob recommends the release of some Mazaree prisoners of war, and
  2. The captain of police recommends the release of some Belooch prisoners of war at Hydrabad (Prisoners of War).

Boundary between Khelat and Sind 1853-61

  1. Boundary between Khelat and Sind in 1853
  2. Survey of the boundary between Khelat & Sindh by Lieutenant E.I. Steuart in 1854
  3. Boundary between Khelat and Sind. 1855
  4. Survey of the boundary between Sind & Khelat in 1856
  5. Lieutenant C.I. Steurat map of the boundary between Khelat & the British territory in 1857
  6. Boundary between Sind and Khelat in 1860-61.

Kelat Affairs 1858-59

  1. Measures adopted by the Khan to bring the Murrees to order extra subsidy to the Khan
  2. Futteh Khan Brahooee, son of BeebeeSahebKhatoon
  3. Remarks and suggestions by Major Green as to the policy to be adopted by the British Government toward that of Khelat (forwarded to Colonel Munro)
  4. Gangaram the Ex Minister of Khelat
  5. SirdarJellalloodein of Candahar
  6. Assistant surgeon Wake Field in medical charge of the Khelat agency
  7. Establishment for assistant surgeon Cook of the Khelat agency
  8. Increase to the pay of the poll agents Moonshee
  9. Subject of Khelat and their affairs not to be noticed except in judicial proceedings
  10. Geological to Colonel Munro with commissioner
  11. Presentation of the horse Argus to the Khan
  12. Morasilas
  13. Assistant surgeon Cook to be attached to the Brigade of Sind Horse
  14. Photographic apparatus supplied to Doctor Cook
  15. Complaint of maltreatment against the Khelat authorities by certain Afghan traders.